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CROLL, James. FRS (1821-1890)

Born near Wolfhill, Perthshire. Developed theories on climate dynamics and geology. His theory of multiple ice ages was eventually proved by Milankovitch in 1976.

DUNCAN, Henry 1774-1846

Banker & Geologist.

Founded the world’s first commercial savings bank and made an important advance in geological science. In 1828 he presented a paper, eventually published in 1831, describing fossil footprints he had discovered. It was the first scientific report of fossilised tracks.

GEIKIE, Sir Archibald. OM, KCB, PRS, FRSE.

b. Edinburgh. (1835 – 1924) Geologist.

Henry Cadell, FRSE (1860-1934)

He was a Scottish geologist noted particularly for his work on the Moine Thrust, (the shale-oil beds of West Lothian) and his experiments on mountain building.


b. nr. Stirling (1848 – 1928) In collaboration with Benjamin Peach, transformed understanding of the geology of the north west highlands of Scotland.

HUTTON, James. FRSE (1726-1797) Father of Modern Geology

Born Edinburgh. A geologist and meteorologist. First to recognise and describe evolution in plants and animals. He was the first scientist to describe the earth as a living organism in his “Theory of the Earth” (1785), which laid down the foundations of the modern science of Geology.

LYELL, Charles. 1st Baronet, Kt FRS

b. nr. Dundee (1797 – 1875) Geologist. Best known for his “Principles of Geology” (1830), in which he popularised James Hutton’s concept that the earth was shaped by the same processes that continue today.


Descended from the MacCullochs of Galloway. b. Guernsey (1773 – 1835). Edinburgh trained doctor and chemist, but principally a geologist. His many endeavours in Scotland include his survey of the western isles including the Isle of Man.

MCLURE, William (Father of American Geology)

Born Ayr, Scotland (1763-1840). He surveyed every territory and state of the young nation, and in 1809 published the first geological map of North America east of the Mississippi. This was the work that earned him the title of Father of American Geology.

MILLER, Hugh (1802-1856) Geologist & Palaeontologist

b. Cromarty, Scotland. Self taught geologist. He left a heritage of discovery of many Silurian sea scorpions and devonian fish. His works include “The Old Red Sandstone” (1841). One of the founding fathers of Geology.


b Ross-shire (1792 – 1871). Geologist. Investigated, first described and established the Silurin and Devonian systems. Founder member of the Royal Geographical Society in 1830

PEACH, Benjamin N. FRS

b. Cornwall. (1842 – 1926). Joined the Geological Survey in 1862, moving to the Scottish branch in 1867. In conjunction with John Horne transformed understanding of he geology of the north west highlands of Scotland.

RAMSAY, Sir Andrew Crombie. FRS

b. Glasgow. (1814 – 1891) Geologist. His first pubished wok was “The Geology of the Island of Arran”. (1841)

WORDIE, Sir James “Jock” Mann (1889-1962) Geologist and Polar Explorer.

Born Glasgow, Scotland. Sailed with Shackleton on the Nimrod Expedition as geologist and head of the scientific staff. His polar achievements were unique among members of the expedition staff and later exceptional on a world level. He gained much distinction during his life.

Scottish Achievement, Influence & Heritage is a work in progress