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ADAIR, John. (1655 – 1722)

Surveyor and Cartographer. Considered to possibly the first Scottish map-maker to use triangulation in his work.

ADIE, Alexander James FRSE (1775-1859)

Born Edinburgh. Medical instrument manufacturer, optician and Meteorologist. Invented the Sympiesometer or Marine Barometer. He was optician to William IV and Queen Victoria.

AINSLIE, John. (1745 – 1828)

Born Jedburgh, Scotland. Surveyor and Cartographer. In 1812 he wrote the standard text for his profession, the “Comprehensive Treatise on Land Surveying comprising the Theory and Practise of all its Branches”. It is still being published in 2013.

Airdrie Public Observatory

It is housed in Airdrie Public Library, having been installed there in 1896.

AITCHISON, John FRSE (Statistician)

Born Scotland 1926. In 1976 he became founding Professor of Statistics at the University of Hong Kong.

Alexander Bain (1811-1877) A Posthumous Emmy for Invention of Scanning for Image Transmission.

A Scottish clock and instrument maker, Born Caithness, Scotland, invented and patented the first electric clock in 1841 and patented his “facsimile” machine in 1843, whereby a message was scanned, sent electronically, and received and printed on chemically sensitive paper. He also invented an earth battery, insulation of electric cables and the electric fire alarm. It is claimed that in 1846 he was using perforated tape to speed up telegraph transmissions, but some proof of that is required. It was however his invention of the fax machine which led to an Emmy award, 139 years after his death, by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences on Friday 8th January 2016. His invention contained the fundamentals that would become television including image scanning, transmission and image reconstruction. It was so advanced that a further 80 years elapsed before television became a reality. It also contained the whole idea of pixels and image manipulation that is in digital photography today.

Alexander Graham Bell (Inventor of the telephone)

Born Edinburgh, Scotland (1847-1922)

Archibald Fullerton and Co

A prominent Glasgow publisher in the 19th century. Books, atlases and maps.

BALD, William. (1789 – 1857)

Surveyor, Cartographer and Civil Engineer. At the age of 17 he was given personal responsibility for mapping the Western Isles of Scotland. These maps were so successful that they transformed the way the isles were depicted in following atlases.

BALFOUR, John Hutton FRSE FRS FRCSE FLS MWS (1808-1884) Botanist

Founder of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, he published extensively including a large number of botanical textbooks. In 1845 be was appointed Professor of Botany at Edinburgh University and Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE).

Bannockburn Big Dig

A partnership between the National Trust for Scotland, Glasgow University’s Centre for Battlefield Archaeology, Stirling Council, GUARD Archaeology and the BBC, to dig in gardens in the area of the battle in an attempt to find artefacts.

Bartholomew, David Ewen (1767 – 1821)

A royal navy commander, surveyor and cartographer. Saw much active service but is principally recognised for his charts of the River Plate, stretches of the west coast of Africa and the Azores. He was working on a survey of the Cape Verde Islands when he became ill and died. Following much research into his family history, Robert Gordon Bartholomew, a sixth generation member of the Bartholomew map-making dynasty, upholds a belief that all Bartholomews of Scottish origin are related. It has yet to be proved in this particular case.

BARTHOLOMEW, John (Ian) (1890 – 1962)

Cartographer and geographer. Took over the family business of John Bartholomew & Sons Ltd on the death of his father John George Bartholomew.

BARTHOLOMEW, John Christopher. (1923 – 2008)

Cartographer and Geographer. Son of John Ian Bartholomew (1890 – 1962).

BARTHOLOMEW, John George (1860 – 1920)

Geographer and cartographer, eldest son of Edinburgh map publisher John Bartholomew Junior (1831 – 1893). He introduced improved methods of cartography including contour lines signifying hight differences. In 1890 named the continent of Antarctica.

BARTHOLOMEW, John Junior. (1831 – 1893)

Cartographer. Son of John Bartholomew Senior he took overall control of the family publishing business in 1856. Introduced the practise of colour contouring which eventually became a standard cartographic practise. He also introduced the colour red on maps to identify British possessions around the world. This also became a standard map-maker’s practise.

BARTHOLOMEW, John Senior. (1805 – 1861)

A cartographer. Son of George Bartholomew (1784 – 1871) founded the engraving and map making firm of John Bartholomew & Son in 1826. It was to become one of the most admired cartographic publishers in the world

BBC Licence Fees

2013. The BBC in London took £320m in licence fees from Scotland, and returned £175m to BBC Scotland. BBC Alba, the very successful BBC Scotland Gaelic Language programme gets £8m and only survives with additional support of £12m from the Scottish Government. BBC Scotland is now under orders to cut staff numbers by 120 by 2017. At the same time there is growing evidence of a break with the past following the introduction of more non-Scots presenters.

Bill Hill (father of e-reading)

He was born in Glasgow, Scotland, (1949-2012), and attended Allan Glen’s school and Herriot-Watt university. He then spent 15 years in the Scottish press before joining  Aldus, where he co-invented the breakthrough ClearType font display. He was head-hunted by Microsoft in 1994 to lead their typography group. There he became a close associate of Bill Gates and they often made public presentations together. He lived for the rest of his life at Redmond, just outside of Seattle. His colleagues say that his work was a major factor in the creation of e-books including Amazon’s Kindle and Apple’s ipad. They called him the “father of e-reading”.

BLACK, Joseph (1728 – 1799) Father of Quantitive Chemistry

Professor of Anatomy and Chemistry in Glasgow University (1756) and then Professor of Medicine and Chemistry in Edinburgh (1766). Today the chemistry buildings at both universities are named after him. Invented the Analytical Balance c. 1750. In 1751 he developed the concept of “Latent Heat“, the theory of which marks the beginning of thermodynamics, and discovered Carbon Dioxide (“Fixed Air“).

BRAID, James (1795 – 1860)

Surgeon and pioneer in the field of Hypnosis. First used the term ‘Neurohypnosis‘ which was later shortened to simply ‘Hypnosis‘.

BREWSTER, Sir David (1781 – 1868)

Physicist and Principal of St. Andrews (1838) and then Edinburgh University (1859). Worked with polarised light. Invented the kaleidoscope and suggested it might be useful for designing carpets.

BRUCE, Jacob Daniel (1669-1735)

Born in Moscow but claiming Scottish descent, his Scottish family having lived in Russia since 1649. his brother was Robert Bruce. He was a statesman, military leader, scientist and close associate of  Peter the Great. He was considered to be one of the most learned people in Russia, being also a naturalist and astronomer. He founded Russia’s first observatory in Moscow in 1702.

BRUCE, Robert and Charles Alexander (Founders Assam Tea Industry)

He and his brother Charles, both native born Scots, were responsible for the foundation of the Assam tea industry in India.

BRUCE, William Speirs (1867 – 1921)

Arctic, and particularly Antarctic explorer. He led the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition which sailed from Troon in November 1902. One hundred years later, it was recognised that it had “laid the foundation of modern climate change studies”, and that its experimental work had showed that part of the globe to be crucially important to the world’s climate.

Scottish Achievement, Influence & Heritage is a work in progress