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Iron and Steel Manufacture

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CARNEGIE, Andrew (1835 – 1918)

Born Dunfermline, Scotland. U.S. iron and steel magnate. Gave a considerable proportion of his fortune to educational endowments, including libraries and over 10,000 church organs. He funded the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace which went on to found the Hague Academy of International Law, and the Peace Palace at The Hague to house the Permanent Court of Arbitration.


FAIRBAIRN, Sir William, FRS (Inventor of the Box or Tube girder)

Born in Kelso, Scotland (1789-1874). Shipbuilder, locomotive-builder and structural engineer. Inventor of the box or tube girder and the Lancashire boiler. He was one of the first engineers to conduct investigations into stress related failures.

MUSHET, David. (Metallurgist)

b. Dalkeith. (1772 -1847). In 1800 patented a process to make cast steel from wrought iron. In 1801, demonstrated that “Black-band Ironstone”, a previously thought to be worthless type of coal, could be used with great economic benefits for production of iron. In 1815, Patented a way to produce refined iron directly from the blast furnace without recourse to a separate refinery.

NEILSON, James Beauont

b. Shettleston. (1792 – 1865). Invented the Hot Blast Furnace, and along with partners, including Charles MacKintosh of waterproof fabric fame, patented the process in 1828.

The Parkhead Forge, Glasgow

Established in 1837 by Reoch Brothers and Company and purchased by Robert Napier in 1841 to make forgings and iron plate for his Govan shipyard. Eventually became wholly owned by William Beardmore & Company, manufacturing steel castings, armour plate and naval guns. At its peak in the 1930s approximately 40,000 people were employed.

William Cadell Snr. (1708-1777)

He was a shipmaster, merchant and industrialist who played an important part in the development of the coke-fired iron industry, and was a co-founder of the Carron Company.

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